2.3- THIRD PROFESSIONAL B.D.S
2.3.1- ORAL PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY
At the end of Oral Pathology & Microbiology course, the student should be able to
1. The different types of pathological processes, that involve the oral cavity.
2. The manifestations of common diseases, their diagnosis & correlation with clinical pathological processes.
3. An understanding of the oral manifestations of systemic diseases should help in correlating with the systemic physical signs & laboratory findings.
4. The student should understand the underlying biological principles governing treatment of oral diseases. 5. The principles of certain basic aspects of Forensic Odontology.
1. Microscopic study of common lesions affecting oral tissues through microscopic slides & projection slides.
2. Study of the disease process by surgical specimens.
3. Study of teeth anomalies/polymorphisms through tooth specimens & plaster casts.
4. Microscopic study of plaque pathogens.
5. Study of haematological preparations (blood films) of anaemias & leukemias.
6. Basic exercises in Forensic Odontology such as histological methods of age estimation and appearance of teeth in injuries.
220.127.116.11- SEMESTER I
a. Developmental disturbances of Teeth
b. Pre malignant , Benign and Malignant lesions
c. Salivary gland tumors and diseases
d. Odontogenic & non –Odontogenic tumours
e. Tooth wear
g. Diseases of pulp and periapical tissues
18.104.22.168- SEMESTER II
a. Spread of Infections
b. Wound Healing
c. Diseases of bones and joints
d. Cysts of Jaws and Oral Cavity
Practical in Oral Pathology to include:
1. Study of Histopathological slides
2. Study of Radiographs
3. Histochemical Techniques
22.214.171.124- Recommended Books:
• Oral Pathology, J.V.Soans, J.C.Southam
• Clinical Guide of Oral Medicine, P.J.Lamy & MAO Lenix
• Essential of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, R.A.Cawson, E.W.Odell
2.3.2- ORAL MEDICINE AND DIAGNOSIS:
To train the students to diagnose the common disorders of Orofacial region by clinical examination and with the help of such investigations as may be required and medical management of oro-facial disorders with drugs and physical agents.
126.96.36.199- SEMESTER I
1. Introduction: Significance of Oral Medicine:
I. Oral diagnosis: Histology, general health status, oral examination (including lips, oral mucosa, floor of the mouth, teeth, gingival, occlusion, salivary glands, jaw bones), examination of tempromendibular joint. Roentgenological examinations, laboratory aids, analysis Treatment Planning and Patient Management
II. Immunity and its impact on oral health.
III. Oral Infections:
a. Bacterial infections.
b. Fungal infections.
c. Viral infections.
b). ORAL SOFT TISSUE LESIONS;
II. Pre-malignant lesions, Clinical features, Diagnosis and management.
III. Disorders of the tongue and lips. Clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.
IV. Diseases of salivary glands, xerostomia; Clinical features,Diagnosis and management.
V. Diseases of Jaw bones, Clinical features, Diagnosis and Management.
VI. Disorders of Tempro-mandibuar joint: Clinical features,Diagnosis and treatment.
VII. Disorders of Teeth, Clinical features. Diagnosis and Treatment.
VIII. Focal infection: Significance diagnosis and management of effect cases.
IX. Clinical features, Diagnosis and treatment of pain;
1. Dento-alveolar pain
2. Neurological pains.
3. Psycho-somatic pain.
4. Halitosis: Causes, Clinical features, diagnosis and therapy.
5. Allergy and drug reactions in dental practice: Clinical features,
6. Diagnosis and treatment of anaphylactic shock.
X. Special consideration to the dental problems of children and senior citizens.
XI. Nutrition and Oral Health.
XII. Professional hazards in dentistry.
188.8.131.52- SEMESTER II
a. ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES:
I. Auto immune diseases related to oral cavity.
II. Oral aspects of systemic diseases and their dental management.
III. Particularly of cardiovascular diseases.
IV. Disorders of Respiratory System.
V. Disorders of Gastrointestinal Tract.
b. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES:
I. AIDS, oral manifestations, diagnosis and management. Syphilis, oral manifestations, diagnosis and management.
II. Oral aspects of Gonococal Infections, diagnosis and management.
c. Diseases of Liver with special attention to the infectivity of the patients and mode of its further spreads and control specific reference to universal precautions.
d.Diseases of Kidneys, special attention to patient on dialysis.
– Oral aspects of puberty, menstruation, pregnancy and menopause.
f. Oral aspects of skin diseases.
g. Special considerations for patients suffering from systemic disorders, like blood disorders requiring blood examination prior to oral surgery.
– Bleeding disorders.
– Patients on anti-coagulant therapy, management.
h. Oral Malignancies, Diagnosis and management.
– Patients on Radio therapy
– Patients on Chemo-therapy
i. Methods of report writing
184.108.40.206- RECOMMENDED BOOKS
1. Oral Medicine by W.R. Tyldesley
2. Burket’s oral Medicine by Malcolm A. Lynch.
3. Oral Medicne and Pathology by Cawson and Odel
220.127.116.11- SEMESTER I
Introduction to period ontology
1. Knowledge of health periodontium macro and micro anatomy and physiology of periodontium.
2. Periodontal Ligament — Blood supply
3. Root cementum — Nerve supply
4. Alveolar bone — Lymphatic System
5. Dentogingival junction
2. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases.
a) Plaque index
b) Debris index
c) PMA index
d) Gingival index
e) Sulcus bleeding index
f) Periodontal destructive index
g) Community periodontal index or treatment needs (CPITN)
3. Etiology of periodontal diseases
A) Dental Plaque Classification
a) Definition a) Supragingival
b) Composition b) Sub gingival
e) Plaque microbiology
B) Dental Calculus Definition
a) Origin and composition
b) Mode of attachment
d) Clinical significance of calculus
4. Microbiology of plaque associated periodontal diseases.
5. Histopathogensis of plaque associated periodontal diseases.
6. Host response in periodontal diseases. Hypersensitivity reaction cell mediated and hormonal immunity.
18.104.22.168- SEMESTER II
7. Periodontal pocket
A) a) Definition
b) Soft tissue wall of periodontal pocket
c) Hard tissue wall of periodontal pocket
d) Pocket content
B) Classification of Periodontal pocket
a) Suprabony pocket
C) Bone loss and pattern of bone loss in Periodontal disease.
A) Adult onset periodontitis (slowly progressional periodonitits)
B) Rapidly progressive periodontitis
a) Early onset periodontitis
i. Prepubertal periodontitis
ii. Juvenile periodontitis
b) Adult onset rapidly progressional periodontitis.
C) Necrotizing periodontitis
i. AIDs Related
ii. Non AIDs related
D) Refractory periodontitis
E) Trauma form Occlusal Definition
i. Acute and Chronic trauma
ii. Primary and secondary trauma
iii. Consequences of trauma
iv. Tissue response of trauma
F) Periodontal manifestation of systemic diseases
(Different systemic diseases are discussed with respect to periodontal manifestation)
9. Tumour and Tumour like lesions of the periodontium.
10. Periodontal abscess and treatment
11. Periodontium and AIDs
12. Furcation Involvement in periodontal diseases Classification Management
13. Periodontal Consideration with:
3. Removable prosthodontics
4. Fixed Prosthodontics
14. GTR (Guided tissue regeneration) Introduction, knowledge and the techniques.
15. Diagnosis of cause related Disease.
a) History talking
b) Examination of the Oral Cavity
c) Importance should be given to the periodontitis
d) Different Diagnosis
e) Plaque Recogination
i. Visualization with naked eyes.
ii. Visualization with disclosing agents.
f) Treatment planning
i. Mechanical control of dental plaque
– Motivation, education and instruction
– Interdental cleaning (AIDs)
– Scaling and root planning with advantages and disadvantages.
g) Chemical control of dental plaque
i. Chemotherapeutic agent for topical and systemic administration.
16. Re-evaluation of the cause related therapy, surgical control of dental plaque.
A) Aims and objectives of periodontal therapy.
i. Local Anaesthesia in periodontal Surgery.
ii. Instruments for periodontal surgery
iii. Periodontal probing impact and radiographic interpretation.
iv. Sterilization, Universal precautionary measures
B) Indications and contra indications of periodontal surgery. Surgical procedures.
ii. Gingivectomy with different modalities
iii. Flap Surgery with different modalities
iv. Muco gingival problem
– Soft tissue graft
– Pedical graft or displaced flap
– Free gingival graft
– Crown lengthening procedure
– Vestibular widening procedure
17. Periodontal dressing
18. Periodontal Suturing
19. Periodontal treatment of medically compromised patients
20. Occlusal Analysis
i. Diagnosis of Occlusal trauma
ii. Occlusal Adjustment
Clinical & Practical Work
1. Knowledge of the objectives of periodontal therapy.
• Elimination of local etiological factor
• Elimination of periodontal pocket
• Establishment of normal Physiolocal architecture of periodontium
• To be able to interpret
• Findings of medical and dental history and relate this to periodontal diagnosis and treatment.
2. To be able to secure a good dental history pertaining to:
a) Past Periodontal treatment.
b) Present Oral hygiene habits
c) Past present oral habits
d) Present of Hypersensitive teeth
e) Past extraction (Reason)
f) Past Restorative treatment, filling types, fixed/removal restoration
g) Past orthodontic treatment
h) Family Dental history
3. Detailed clinical examination and charting of the Periodontium i.e. accurate probing.
• To be able to recognize problems of an inadequate width and attached gingival.
4. Shallow vestibule
• High muscle frenum attachment
a) Scaling manual
b) Root Planning
f) Epulus Removal (with incisional and excisional procedure)
g) Flap Surgery
22.214.171.124- RECOMMENDED BOOKS
• CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY BY CARANZA
• CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY BY MANSON
• A TEXTBOOK OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY BY JAN LINDHE
• PERIODONTOLOGY AND PERIODONTICS MODERN THEORYAND PRACTICE BY SINGURD P. RAMFORD MAJOR M.ASH.
2.3.4- General Medicine
Special emphasis should be given throughout on the importance of various diseases as applicable to dentistry. 1. Special precautions/ contraindication of anaesthesia and various dental procedures in different systemic diseases. 2. Oral manifestations of systemic diseases. 3. Medical emergencies in dental practice. A dental student should be taught in such a manner he/she is able to record the arterial pulse, blood pressure and be capable of suspecting by sight and superficial examination of the body – diseases of the heart, lungs, kidneys, blood etc. He should be capable of handling medical emergencies encountered in dental practice.
126.96.36.199- SEMESTER I:
1. Cardiovascular system
Description of approach to patient with chest pain, Angina, Myocardial Infarction, Congestive Cardiac Failure, Rheumatic fever, Valvular Heart disease, Infective Endocarditis, Pulmonary hypertension / corpulmonale, Pericarditis / Pericardial effusion, Hypertension, Peripheral Vascular disease.
Introduction with respect to symptmatology, Differential diagnosis of acute dyspnea, Differential diagnosis of chronic dyspnea, Upper respiratory tract infections, Pneumonia, Bronchial Asthma, COPD, Bronchiectasis, Pulmonary/extra pulmonary tuberculosis, Bronchogenic carcinoma, Pleural effusion, Pneumothorax.
Introduction to gastroenterology, GERD, Peptic Ulcer Disease, Acute upper Gl bleed, Diarrhea. / Inflammatory bowel disease, Malabsorption.
4. Liver & billiary tract
Introduction and Symtomatology, Interpretation of LFT, Acute Hepatocellular Diesese, Chronic Hepatocellular Disease, Amoebic & pyogenic liver abscesses, Drugs & Liver, Gallstones / Cholecystitis, Pancreatitis
An approach to a patient with anemia, Iron deficiency Anemia, Megaloblastic Anemia, Hemolytic Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Lympho-proliferative disorders, myelo-proliferative disorders, Thrombocytopenia / Purpura, Bleeding / Coagulation disorders, Blood transfusion / Anti coagulants.
188.8.131.52- SEMESTER II:
An account of Pituitary Hormones / Growth Hormone, Hyperthyroidism / Evaluation of thyroid functions, Hypothyroidism, Para Thyroids / Calcium Metabolism, Osteoporosis, Osteomalacia / DD of proximal muscle weakness, Cushing Syndrome, Addison’s Disease, Diabetes: Clinical feature, Diagnosis & Managements, Diabetes: Complications / Hypoglycemia.
2. Central Nervous System and Psychiatry
Trigeminal Neuralgia / DD of Facial pain, Facial palsy/ DD of facial asymmetry, CVAs / TIA / RIND, Epilepsy, Coma, Meningitis, Headache, Anxiety states, Depression / Acute conversion disorders, Psychosis.
Description of Malaria, Typhoid, HIV, Sexually transmitted diseases, Toxin – mediated infections i.e. botulism; tetanus; toxic shock synd; DD of locked jaw, Skin infections i.e. erysipelas, cellulites, scabies, Acute gastro enteritis, Measles / Mumps / Rubella, Management (Gen- Principles ) of animals bite (cat/dog/rat) rabies, Fever and rash, Sepsis, Catheter – related infections.
4. Renal diseases
Evaluation of the patient with renal disease, Nephrotic syndrome, nephritic syndrome / glomerulonephritis, ARF, CRF, UTI.
An approach to a patient with arthritis, Gout, Infectious arthritis, Rh. Arthritis, SLF, Spondylo arthropathies.
Description of Shock, CPR (Cardio pulomonary Resuscitation), Electrolyte Balance, Acid/Base Balance, Bed side procedures, Scurvy, Vitamin B deficiency.
The student must be able to take history, do general physical examination (including build, nourishment, pulse, BP, respiration, clubbing, cyanosis, jaundice, lymphadenopathy, oral cavity) and be able to examine CVS, RS and abdomen and facial nerve.
184.108.40.206- RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
Text Book of Medicine by Parveen Kumar
Text Book of Medicine by David Sons
Text Book of Clinical Medicine by M. Ali
Text Book of Medicine by Hitchison
2.3.5- GENERAL SURGERY:
To acquaint the student with various diseases, which may require surgical expertise and to train the student to analyze the history and be able to do a thorough physical examination of the patient. The diseases as related to head and neck region are to be given due importance, at the same time other relevant surgical problems are also to be addressed. At the end of one year of study the student should have a good theoretical knowledge of various ailments, and be practically trained to differentiate benign and malignant diseases and be able to decide which patient requires further evaluation.
220.127.116.11- SEMESTER I:
1. Core Knowledge and Principles of Surgery.
1. Physiological response to Surgical Trauma and homeostasis.
2. Wound and its Repair.
3. Pathophysiology and Management of Shock including fluid and electrolyte imbalance.
4. Investigation and treatment of Infections and Parasitic Infestations of surgical Importance.
5. Hemorrhage Blood Transfusion and their implications.
6. Management of Acutely injured & critically ill patients including aspiration pneumonia and embolic phenomenon.
7. Principles in the Management of common Skin and Soft Tissue problems: Ulcers, Abscesses, Sinus & Fistulae, Swellings, Embedded foreign bodies and Minor injuries.
8. Principles of Anaesthesia.
9. Nutrition of surgical patients.
2. To deal with critical Situations:
a. Cardiac Arrest.
b. Polytrauma with airway difficulty and circulatory instability.
c. Uncontrolled Extemal Hemorrhage.
d. Sudden upper Repiratory Tract Obstruction.
e. Patient in Hypovolaemic or Septicemia Shock.
f. Tension Pneumothorax.
g. Cardiac Temponade.
h. Unconscious patient due to Head Injury.
i. Patient with Gas Gangrene and Tatenus.
18.104.22.168- SEMESTER II:
I. • Head, Face and Neck:
a. Development abnormalities of face, palate, lip.
b. Principles of management of Head Injuries and its complications.
c. Oral region including tongue.
d. Diseases of Salivary glands (Inflammation, Calculus, Tumors)
e. Neck lumps including Lymphatics Thyroid, Parathyroid.
II. Chest Wall & Thorax:
a. Blunt & Penetrating Injuries and their Complications.
b. Lung abscess and Empyema Thoracis.
c. Growth of cysts in the lungs.
III. Gastro Intgestinal Tract:
a. Diseases causing Oesophageal Obstruction.
b. Peptic Ulcer disease & its complications.
c. Tumors of Stomach.
d. Conditions Causing Acute Abdomen.
e. Conditions causing Chronic Abdomen including malignant lesions of small and large bowel.
IV. Abdominal, Pelvic and Genital Traumas and Hernias.
a. Principles in management of abdominal trauma.
b. Obstructive Jaundice
c. Liver Abscess
d. Hydated cyst
e. Malignancy (Hepatoma & Secondaries)
VI. Gall Bladder:
a. Acute and chronic Cholecystitis
b. Cholelithiasis and its Complications
a. Acute, Relapsing and Chronic pancreatitis
b. Pancreatic masses including (benign, malignant) neoplasia
VIII. Skin & Soft Tissues:
a. Common benign and malignant skin lesions
b. Wounds / Ulcers / abscesses /Sinuses / Fistulae
c. Soft Tissue Lumps
IX. Orthopedics and Trauma:
a. Common Congenital Malformatios of Locomotive System.
b. Bone Fracture & their Comp-lications.
c. Sports injuries and afflictions of Tendons and Bursae.
d. Bone and joint Infections.
ii. Bone and Cartilage Tumours.
X. Vascular and ;Nerve Disorders:
a. Vascular afflictions.
c. Deep venous thrombosis.
d. Peripheral nerve Injuries.
• Essential Skill to be acquired:
1. Provide First Aid: BASIC LIFE SUPPORT.
2. Collect samples of blood, urine, sputum, pus swab etc.
3. Understand the principles of pre-operative preparations, Sterilization /Disinfecting techniques.
4. Understand principles of wound care, Skin Suturing and Suture Removal, Incision and Drainage of Superficial Abscesses, Excision of Small Soft Tissue Lumps, Needle Biopsies, Aspiration of localized fluids, etc.
5. Have Observed common surgical procedures, treatment of Fracture / Dislocation and Methods of General / Local Anesthesia.
6. Have observed instillation of Chemotherapy and principles of Radiotherapy.
Skills to be developed by the end of teaching are to examine a routine swelling, ulcer and other related diseases and to perform minor surgical procedures such as draining an abscess, taking a biopsy etc.
22.214.171.124- Recommended books:
Text Book of General Surgery by Baileys Love
Lecture Notes on Surgery by Harold Ellis
Clinical methods in General Surgery by Browns
Clinical methods in General Surgery by S. DAS
APART FROM THE ABOVE-MENTIONED SUBJECTS THE STUDENTS ARE REQUIRED TO COVER AND SIMILARLY EXECUTE TASKS IN THEIR RESPECTIVE CLINICAL POSTINGS IN THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENTS.
I. Partial Dentures
b) Applied Anatomy and Physiology
c) Oral manifestations of local and systemic disorders
d) History General and oral examination
f) Diagnosis and treatment planning, prognosis
g) Bio-mechanics of oral cavity and contributory factors
i) Study cast, master cast, working cast.
j) Components: Outline of support, retention, bracing and reciprocation, connectors.
k) Surveying, Design of partial dentures
l) Mouth rehabilitation/Odontoplasty
m) Impression techniques and modifications
n) Construction of wax pattern and casting procedures
o) Trial of metal frame work
p) Maxilo mandibular relations: Use of face bow,articulation techniques including split cast techniques
q) Selection of artificial teeth
r) Arrangements of teeth
s) Processing and finishing procedures
t) Insertion and post insertion counseling and follow up
2.3.7- ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SURGERY
i) Introduction, History and Diagnosis and treatment planning
ii) Sterilization, instruments and armamentarium
ii) Sterilization, instruments and armamentarium
iv) Bone Removal, Haemostasis, debridement and suturing.
v) Post Operative care and nutrition, Prevention of infection, Antibiotics and cross-infection
2. LOCAL ANAESTHESIA
i) Introduction, types and Pharmacology.
ii) Indications and contra-indications,
iii) Surgical Anatomy
iv) Administration techniques
v) Complications and management
ii) Indications and contra-indications
iii) Principles and application of forceps extraction
iv) Principles and application of elevators
v) Surgical removal of erupted/broken down roots teeth
vi) Complication of extradition
vii) Management of complications
4. Prevention And Management of Medical Emergencies
5. Introduction to Dental Ethics and Law, Forensic Dentistry
6. General Anaesthesia and Sedation in Dentistry
7. Impacted Wisdom tooth Surgery
a) Introduction and Aetiology
b) Indications and contra-indications
c) Surgical Techniques
d) Complications of impacted wisdom tooth Surgery and its management
2.3.8- OPERATIVE DENTISTRY
1. Dental Caries
2. Examination, Diagnosis, and Treatment Planning
– Examination and Diagnosis
– Erosion, Attrition, Abrasion, cracked tooth, others
– Treatment sequencing, placement and repair/replacement
– Selection of restorative materials
– Restorative failure
– Postoperative problems
3. Principles of cavity design & preparation
– Basic principles, instrumentation and nomenclature
– Introduction to lasers
– Dental amalgam
– Tooth colored restorative materials
4. Sterilization and cross infection control
5. Isolation, Operator and the environment
– Instruments and equipment
– Control of the operating field
– Soft tissue management
2.3- THIRD PROFESSIONAL B.D.S