2.2- Second Professional B.D.S:
At the end of the course the student should be competent to apply the scientific study of diseaseprocesses, which result in morphological and functional alterations in cells, tissues andorgans to the study of pathology and the practice of dentistry.
Enabling the student
1. To demonstrate and apply basic facts, concepts and theories in the field of Pathology.
2. To recognize and analyze pathological changes at macroscopically and microscopical levels and explain their observations in terms of disease processes.
3. To Integrate knowledge from the basic sciences, clinical medicine and dentistry in the study of Pathology.
4. To demonstrate understanding of the capabilities and limitations of morphological Pathology in its contribution to medicine, dentistry and biological research.
5. To demonstrate ability to consult resource materials outside lectures, laboratory and tutorial classes.
220.127.116.11- SEMESTER I:
1. CELL INJURY:
a. Terms necrosis, ischemia, hypoxia, infarction and gangrene.
b. Sequence of the ultrastructural and biochemical changes which occur in the cell in response to the following:
Immunological injury-eg. Asthma / SLE /Anaphylactic reaction
Physical agents: eg. Radiation
Genetic defects- eg. Thalassemia / haemophilia
Viruses: eg. Hepatitis / Aids / HIV infections
Fungi: eg. Staphylococcus
Parasites: eg. Malaria
c. Irreversible and reversible injury.
d. Apoptosis and its significance.
e. Necrosis and its types.
f. Exogenous and endogenous pigment deposition
g. Dystrophic and metastatic calcification along with clinical significance.
h. Metabolic disorders
2. INFLAMMATION AND MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION
a) Describe the role of inflammation in the defense mechanisms of the body.
b) Describe the vascular changes of acute inflammation and relate these to the morphological and tissue effects.
c) Describe the process of chemotaxis, opsonization and phagocytosis.
d) Describe the role of cellular components in inflammatory exudate.
e) Differentiate between exudate and transudate.
f) List the important chemical mediators of inflammation
g) Describe the pathway of Archidonic Acid metabolism.
h) Discuss the role of products of Archidonic acid metabolism in inflammation.
i) Describe the mechanism for development of fever, with reference to exogenous and endogenous pyrogens.
j) Describe chronic inflammation including granulomas.
k) Describe granuloma , its type and causes.
l) Describe the systemic effects of acute and chronic inflammation and their possible outcomes.
m) Describe the signification of ESR.
3. WOUND HEALING
a) Describe the differences between repair and regeneration.
b) Describe wound healing by first and second intention.
c) Discuss the factors that influence the inflammatory reparative response.
d) Compare wound contraction with cicatrization.
e) Describe the formation of granulation tissue.
f) Describe the complications of wound healing.
4. DISORDERS OF CIRCULATION
a) THROMBO-EMBOLIC DISORDERS AND THEIR MODALITIES:
1. Explain the pathogenesis of thrombosis.
2. Describe the possible consequences of thrombosis.
b) DISORDERS OF THE CIRCULATION AND SHOCK
1. Define edema, ascites, hydrothorax and anasarca.
2. Describe the pathophysiology of edema with special emphasis on CHF.
3. Describe the pathogenesis of four major types of shock (Hypovolemic, cardiogenic, vasovagal and septic) and list their causes.
4. Describe the compensatory mechanisms involved in shock.
Description of Neoplasia Characteristics of bengin and malignant tumors, Spread of tumours, Pre-disposing factors, etiology carcingenesis, classification, Skin tumours Bengin Malignant.
Description of hereditary and related disorders
1. Histopathological presentations: Necorsis, Acute Inflammation, Chronic Inclammation, Granulation tissue, Granulomatous inflammation, Fatty Change.
2. Study of Microscope
3. Sterlization methods
4. Simple Staining methods
5. Culture Medias
6. Gram staining
7. Zeihl Nelson staining
8. Histopathological presentations: Beningn Tumour (leiomyoma ), Malignant Tumour (leiomyosaecema), Sq. cell Ca, Papillioma, Basal Cell Ca,
9. Serology (widal test)
18.104.22.168- SEMESTER II:
Introduction to Hematopoietic System Red cell disorder Anemia’s , White cell disorder, Leukemia’s, Platel disorders, Bleeding disorders, Blood transfusion Blood groups, Blood Chemistry
Description of Antigen, Antibody, Complement, Immune responses, Adverse immune reaction, HLA Tissue transplantation.
Description of G.I.T. Disorders (Oral lesions, Infections, Ulcerations, tumours, Congenital defects), Liver Disorders (Jaundice, Hepatitis Lab, Investigation), Bones & JointsDisorders (Osteomyelitis, Paget’s disease, Bone tumours), Circulatory System Disorders (Arterioscleroses, Hypertension, IHD, Rheumatic fever), Nervous System Disorders (Meningitis, Facial nerve palsy), Respiratory System Disorders (Pneumonia, tuberculosis, Tumours), Hormonal disease (Diabetes Mellitus, Thyroid, Pituitary).
THE ORAL CAVITY:
a. Predisposing factors (pipe smoking, ill fitting denture, alcohol abuse, irritant foods) of leukoplakia.
b. Clinical and morphological features of oral cancer.
c. Benign and malignant tumours of salivary glands.
d. Clinical and morphological features of plemorphic adenoma.
a. Study of Blood Culture & Sensitivity
b. Study of Anaerobic bacterial culture
c. Study of Total Leukocyte Count & Differential Leukocyte Count
d. Study of Blood Grouping methods
e. Study of Bleeding Time & Clotting Time
f. Study of Blood transfusion, Blood groups
g. Study of micro-organisms: Staphylococci, Streptococci, Corynebacterium diphtheria, M. Tuberculosis, Clostridium, Plasmodium.
h. Urine examination
i. Stool examination
j. Study of Blood Chemistry
22.214.171.124- RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Basic Pathology BY Robbin & Kumar
To introduce the students to the exciting world of microbes. To make the students aware of various branches of microbiology, importance, significance and contribution of each branch to mankind and other fields of medicine. The objectives of teaching microbiology can be achieved by various teaching techniques such as :
b) Lecture Demonstrations
c) Practical exercises
d) Audio visual aids
e) Small group discussions with regular feed back from the students.
A. Knowledge and Understanding
At the end of the Microbiology course the student is expected to :
1. Understand the basics of various branches of microbiology and able to apply theknowledge relevantly.
2. Apply the knowledge gained in related medical subjects like General Medicine and General Surgery and Dental subjects like Oral Pathology, Community Dentistry,
Periodontics, Oral Surgery, Pedodontics, Conservative Dentistry and Oral medicine in higher classes.
3. Understand and practice various methods of Sterilisation and disinfection in dental clinics.
4. Have a sound understanding of various infectious diseases and lesions in the oral cavity.
1. Student should have acquired the skill to diagnose, differentiate various oral lesions.
2. Should be able to select, collect and transport clinical specimens to the laboratory.
3. Should be able to carry out proper aseptic procedures in the dental clinic.
126.96.36.199- SEMESTER I:
1. GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY:
a. History, Introduction, Scope, Aims and Objectives.
b. Morphology and Physiology of bacteria.
c. Detail account of Sterlisation and Disinfection.
d. Brief account of Culture media and Culture techniques.
e. Basic knowledge of selection, collection, transport, processing of clinical Specimens and identification of bacteria.
f. Bacterial Genetics and Drug Resistance in bacteria.
a. Infection – Definition, Classification, Source, Mode of transmission and types of Infectious disease.
c. Structure and functions of Immune system
d. The Complement System
f. Immunoglobulins – Antibodies – General structure and the role played in defense mechanism of the body.
g. Immune response
h. Antigen – Antibody reactions – with reference to clinical utility.
i. Immuno deficiency disorders – a brief knowledge of various types of immunodeficiency disorders – A sound knowledge of immuno deficiency disorders relevant to dentistry.
j. Hypersensitivity reactions
k. Autoimmune disorders – Basic knowledge of various types – sound knowledge of autoimmune disorders of oral cavity and related structures.
l. Immunology of Transplantation and Malignancy
188.8.131.52- SEMESTER II:
1. SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY:
I. Pyogenic cocci – Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pneumococcus, Gonococcus, Meningococcus – brief account of each coccus – detailed account of mode of spread, laboratory diagnosis, Chemo therapy and prevention – Detailed account of Cariogenic Streptococci.
II. Corynebacterium diphtheriae – mode of spread, important clinical feature, Laboratory diagnosis, Chemotherapy and Active immunisation.
III. Mycobacteria – Tuberculosis and Leprosy
IV. Clostridium – Gas gangrene, food poisoning and tetanus.
V. Non-sporing Anaerobes – in brief about classification and morphology, in detail about dental pathogens – mechanism of disease production and prevention.
VI. Spirochaetes – Treponema pallidum – detailed account of Oral Lesions of syphilis, Borrelia vincentii.
b. General properties, cultivation, host – virus interaction with special reference to Interferon.
c. Brief account of Laboratory diagnosis, Chemotherapy and immuno prophylaxis in general.
d. A few viruses of relevance to dentistry.
i. Herpes Virus
ii. Hepatitis B Virus – brief about other types
iii. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
iv. Mumps Virus
v. Brief – Measles and Rubella Virus
e. Bacteriophage – structure and Significance
a. Brief Introduction
b. Candidosis – in detail
c. Briefly on oral lesions of systemic mycoses.
a. Brief introduction – protozoans and helminths
b. Brief knowledge about the mode of transmission and prevention of commonly seen parasitic infection in the region.
184.108.40.206- RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Microbiology Lipincott’s Illustrated Reviews
Medical Microbiology (Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg)
The broad goal of teaching under graduate students in pharmacology is to inculcate rational and scientific basis of therapeutics keeping in view of dental curriculum and Profession.
At the end of the course the student shall be able to:
i) Describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of essential and commonly used drugs in general and in dentistry in particular.
ii) List the indications, contraindications; interactions, and adverse reactions of commonly used drugs with reason.
iii) Tailor the use of appropriate drugs in disease with consideration to its cost, efficacy, safety for individual and mass therapy needs.
iv) Indicate special care in prescribing common and essential drugs in special medical situations such as pregnancy, lactation, old age, renal, hepatic damage and immuno compromised patients.
v) Integrate the rational drug therapy in clinical pharmacology.
vi) Indicate the principles underlying the concepts of “Essential drugs”.
At the end of the course the student shall be able to:
1) Prescribe drugs for common dental and medical ailments.
2) To appreciate adverse reactions and drug interactions of commonly used drugs.
3) Observe experiments designed for study of effects of drugs.
4) Critically evaluate drug formulations and be able to interpret the clinical pharmacology of marketed preparations commonly used in dentistry.
220.127.116.11- SEMESTER I:
1. General Pharmacology:
a. Definition of drug and drug nomenclature.
b. Branches / Divisions of Pharmacology
c. Active principles of drug and Pharmacology
d. Dosage forms and doses of drugs.
e. Absorption of drugs and processes involved in drug absorption
f. Factors modifying absorption of drugs.
g. Transport of drugs across cell-membrane
h. Bioavailability, its clinical significance and factors affecting bioavailabiliy
i. Drugs reservoirs, distribution and redistribution of drugs, plasma protein binding.
j. Pro-drug, Biotransformation of drugs, enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition and entero-hepatic circulation
k. Plasma half-life of drugs, steady state concentration, its clinical mportance and factors affecting it.
l. Excretion of drugs.
m. Mechanism of drug action.
n. Dose response curves, structure-activity relationship.
o. Factors modifying action and doses of drugss.
p. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and Receptors
2. Drugs Acting on Autonomic Nervous system
• Cholinimimetic Alkaloids
• Anti Muscarinic
• Non catecholamine
Anti- Cholinergic Drugs
• Anti Muscarinic
• Non catecholamine
Sympatholytics / Antiadrenergics
• Alpha Adrenergic Blockers
• Beta Adrenergic receptor Blockers
3. Autocoids and Anti-inflammatory Agents:
Introduction to anti-inflammatory agents and autocoids.
Introduction to diuretics and related agents
5. Cardiovascular System:
Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure & Cardiac Glycosides, Anti- Anginal agents, Anti Hypertensive, Anti Arrhythmic, Coagulation & Anti-coagulants, treatment of Anemia, treatment of Hyperlipidemia.
6. Gout and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Treatment of gout and rheumatoid arthritis
Introduction to non-narcotic analgesics
1. Weight & Measures, Interconversion
2. To prepare & Dispense 90 ml of 0.05% KmnO4 solution.
3. To prepare & dispense 120 ml of 1:4000 KMnO4 solution
4. To prepare & dispense 100 ml of .01% KMnO4 from stock.
5. To prepare and dispense 90 ml of Carminative Mixture.
6. To prepare and dispense 3 doses of Bismuth Kaolin
7. To prepare & dispense 90 ml Castor Oil Emulsion. Each 30 ml Contains 4 ml of Oil.
18.104.22.168- SEMESTER II
Introduction, Antiseptics & Disinfectants, Folate Antagonists, Penicillin, Cephalosporins, Macrolides, Quinolones, Tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol, Aminoglycosides, Anti-Tuberculous. Antiviral agents
Central Nervous System:
Treatment of Parkinsonism, Epilepsy, CNS Stimulants, Antipsychotics, Antidepressants, Opioid Analgesics, General Anesthetics, Local Anesthetics, Sedative Hypnotics, Anxiolytics, Treatment of migraine
Description of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of respiratory disorders.
Description of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.
Description of Anti-protozoal agents, Anti-Helminthic agents,
Introduction, Pituitary and Hypothalamus, Thyroid & Antithyroid Drugs, Insulin & Oral, Hypoglycemics, Paratharmone & Calcitonin, Androgens, Female sex Hormones & Anti-Estrogens, Corticosteroids.
Anti – septics, astrigents, obtundents, mummifying agents, bleaching agents, styptics, disclosing agents, dentifrices, mouth washes, caries and fluorides. 2. Pharmacotherapy of common oral conditions in dentistry
a. To prepare & dispense 90 ml Cod Liver Oil Emulsion. Each 30 ml containing 4 ml Oil.
b. To prepare & dispense 40 ml of Calamine Lotion.
c. To prepare and dispense 20 ml of Turpentine Liniment
d. To prepare & dispense 4 powders of Atropine diphenoxylate.
e. To prepare & dispense 4 powders, each containing 0.6 mg Hyoscine.
f. To prepare & dispense 15G of Sulphur Ointment.
g. Prescription Writing
22.214.171.124- RECOMMENDED BOOK:
• Bertam G Katzung, Basic and Clinical pharmacology
• Review of Pharmacology Katzung
• Lauerence D.R. Clinical Pharmacology 8th ed. Churchill Livingstone
• Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews Pharmacology
• Basis of therapeutics and pharmacology Goodman Gillmans
2.2.4- ORAL BIOLOGY
Oral Biology course includes instructions in the subject of Dental Morphology, Oral Embryology, Oral Histology and Oral Physiology.Introduction – Oral Biology – a composite of basic Dental Sciences & their clinical applications.
The student should acquire basic skills in :
1. Carving of crowns of permanent teeth in wax.
2. Microscopic study of Oral tissues.
3. Identification of Deciduous & Permanent teeth.
4. Age estimation by patterns of teeth eruption from plaster casts of different age groups.
After a course on Oral Biology,
1. The student is expected to appreciate the normal development, morphology, structure & functions of oral tissues & variations in different pathological/non-pathological states.
2. The student should understand the histological basis of various dental treatment procedures and physiologic ageing process in the dental tissues.
3. The students must know the basic knowledge of various research methodologies.
126.96.36.199- SEMESTER I:
I. TOOTH MORPHOLOGY
1. Introduction to tooth morphology:
Human dentition, types of teeth, & functions, Palmer’s & Binomial notation systems, tooth surfaces, their junctions – line angles & point angles, definition of terms used in dental morphology, geometric concepts in tooth morphology, contact areas & embrasures – Clinical significance.
2. Morphology of permanent teeth :
• Description of individual teeth, along with their endodontic anatomy & including a note on their chronology of development, differences between similar class of teeth & identification of individual teeth.
• Variations & Anomalies commonly seen in individual teeth.
3. Morphology of Deciduous teeth :
• Generalized differences between Deciduous & Permanent teeth.
• Description of individual deciduous teeth, including their chronology of development, endodontic anatomy, differences between similar class of teeth & identification of individual teeth.
4. Occlusion :
• . Definition, factors influencing occlusion – basal bone, arch, individual teeth, external & internal forces & sequence of eruption.
• . Inclination of individual teeth – compensatory curves.
• . Centric relation & Centric occlusion – protrusive, retrusive & lateral occlusion.
• . Clinical significance of normal occlusion.
• . Introduction to & Classification of Malocclusion.
II. ORAL EMBRYOLOGY
• General human development
• The brachial apparatus
• Development of face/tongue/thyroid gland
• Development of nasomaxillary complex
• Development of palate
• Development of mandible and temporo mandibular joint
• Development of para-nasal sinuses
• Development of salivary glands
• Tooth development and its associated structures
• Development of cartilages and bones of facial skeleton
• Introduction of clinical anomalies related with all the above topics
• Introduction to Post natal facial growth.
• Development of base of skull
III. ORAL HISTOLOGY
• Bone/cartilage (specially jaws)
• Alveolar bone
• Periodontal ligament
• Tooth eruption and shedding
IV. ORAL PHYSIOLOGY
1. Saliva :
Composition of saliva – variations, formation of saliva & mechanisms of secretion, salivary reflexes, brief review of secretomotor pathway, functions, role of saliva in dental caries & applied aspects of hyper & hypo salivation.
2. Mastication :
Masticatory force & its measurement – need for mastication, peculiarities of masticatory muscles, masticatory cycle, masticatory reflexes & neural control of mastication.
3. Deglutition :
. Review of the steps in deglutition, swallowing in infants, neural control of deglutition & dysphagia
188.8.131.52- SEMESTER II
III. ORAL HISTOLOGY
1. Oral mucous membrane
5. Temporo-mandibular joint clinical consideration
6. Endogenous implants/changes during tooth movement/wound healing
7. Detailed microscopic study of Oral Mucosa, variation in structure in relation to functional requirements, mechanisms of keratinization, clinical parts of gingiva
8. Dentogingival & Mucocutaneous junctions & lingual papillae. Age changes & clinical considerations.
9. Salivary Glands :
a. . Detailed microscopic study of acini & ductal system.
b. . Age changes& clinical considerations.
10. TM Joint :
a. . Review of basic anatomical aspects & microscopiuc study & clinical considerations.
11. Maxillary Sinus :
a. Microscopic study, anatomical variations, functions & clinical relevance of maxillary sinus in dental practice.
12. Processing of Hard & soft tissues for microscopic study :
i. . Ground sections, decalcified sections & routine staining procedures.
13. Basic histochemical staining patterns of oral tissues.
IV. ORAL PHYSIOLOGY
1. Calcium, Phosphorous & fluoride metabolism :
. Source, requirements, absorption, distribution, functions & excretion, clinical considerations, hypo & hypercalcemia & hyper & hypo phosphatemia & fluorosis.
2. Theories of Mineralization :
Definition, mechanisms, theories & their drawbacks.
Applied aspects of physiology of mineralization, pathological considerations – calculus
3. Physiology of Taste :
Innervation of taste buds & taste pathway, physiologic basis of taste sensation, age
changes & applied aspects – taste disorders.
4. Physiology of Speech :
Review of basic anatomy of larynx & vocal cords.
.Voice production, resonators, production of vowels & different consonants – Role of palate, teeth & tongue.
Effects of dental prosthesis & appliances on speech & basic speech disorders.
• Tooth carving with proper dimensions on a wax.
• Histological slides.
184.108.40.206- RECOMMENDED TEXT BOOKS
• Oral Histology (Development, Structure and Function), A.R.Tencate
• Orban’s Oral Histology & Embryology – S.N.Bhaskar
• Oral Development & Histology – James & Avery
• Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology & Occlusion – Major.M.Ash
• Dental Anatomy – its relevance to dentistry – Woelfel & Scheid
• Applied Physiology of the mouth – Lavelle
• Physiology & Biochemistry of the mouth – Jenkins
• 2.2.5- Community Dentistry
To prevent and control oral diseases and promote oral health through organized community efforts
At the conclusion of the course the student shall have a knowledge of the basis of public health, preventive dentistry, public health problems in India, Nutrition, Environment and their role in health, basics of dental statistics, epidemiological methods, National oral health policy with emphasis on oral health policy.
B). Skill and Attitude:
At the conclusion of the course the students shall have require at the skill of identifying health problems affecting the society, conducting health surveys, conducting health education classes and deciding health strategies. Students should develop a positive attitude towards the problems of the society and must take responsibilities in providing health.
C). Communication abilities:
At the conclusions of the course the student should be able to communicate the needs of the community efficiently, inform the society of all the recent methodologies in preventing oral disease
220.127.116.11- SEMESTER I
1. Concepts of Health and Disease
Concepts of Health Disease and Illness, Determinants of Health, Primary Health Care Activity and Underlying Principals, Global Goals for Oral Health for the Year 2000, Criteria for A Public Health Problem and Public Health Importance of Oral Disease, Impact of Oral Disease with reference to Impairment Functional Limitation, Discomfort Disability and Handicap.
2. Principles of epidemiology
Epidemeology, Uses of Epidemeology, Types of Epidemeological Studies, Indices – Criteria for an Ideal Index. Protocol to conduct an Epidemiological Survey.
3. Dental Caries
Etiology and Nature of Dental Caries Methods of Diagnosis Caries, used in Epidemiology DMFT & DMFS limitation of DMFS, WHO Criteria for diagnosing Dental Caries and Criteria for Treatment need.
4. Periodontal Disease
Etiology and Natural History of Periodontal Disease continuous disease Model and Burs Model of Progression of Periodontal disease what Epidemeology has revealed about periodontal disease name of Indices used to Measure Periodontal Disease and Periodontal Treatment need short coming of Russel Perio Index, Ramfjord Perio disease indices, codes, dean’s index for fluorosis WHO indices for malocclusion for TMJ disorders lesions of Oral Mucosa and bone.
5. Dental Disease and Fluoride
Sampling types of sampling fluoride. Mode of action of fluoride sources and metabolism or fluoride historical back ground of water fluoridation, Fluoridation studies, advantages and disadvantages of water fluoridation, alternative methods to water fluoridation.
18.104.22.168- SEMESTER II
1. Surveys and Screening
Screening, aim and principles of screening difference between screening & epidemiological surveys validity, sensitivity +ve and –ve predictive value, Clinical trials various steps in conducting a clinical trial.
2. Prevention of Dental Disease
Trends in dental caries in developed and under developing countries, Studies showing correlation between sugar and dental caries, High risk markers of caries, Fissure sealant, rationale for used cost effectiveness, cost benefit, Strategy is to reduce sugar consumption in a community.
3. Health Promotion
Description of Health promotion & various types of Health Promotion Activities.
Statistics types of means median mode weighted mean variance, standard normal deviates, sampling error probability.
5. Dental Auxiliaries
Dental and non-dental auxiliaries, classification problems with dental care in developing countries. Uses of Health auxiliaries to provide a comprehensive O~ essential dental care to rural community.
6. Health Education
Description of Health education and principles followed to plan a dental health education program.
Practical & field assignments:
A. Clinical Oral Examination
i Exercise on Models and Extracted teeth
ii Exercise on patients in out patients department
iii Examination of institutionalized population like school children
B. Questionnaire / interview study
i Designing a questionnaire
ii. Pilot testing the questionnaire
iii Data coding, processing and analysis
C. Planning and conducting a dental health education (D.H.E.) session:
i. Designing D.H.E. material
ii Planning, conducting and evaluating (D.H.E) sessions
D. Chairside preventive dental procedures
i High fluoride gel application
ii Fissure sealing
iv Plaque disclosing
v Instructions about Oral Hygiene measures
• Tooth Brushing demonstration
• Inter-dental cleaning
• Chemical control of dental plaque
22.214.171.124- RECOMMENDED BOOKS:
Community Dentistry By Brian Burt
2.2.6- PRE CLINICAL DENTISTRY
The preclinical dentistry include the following: –
1. Junior Operative Techniques
2. Junior Prosthetic Techniques
3. Orthodontics Laboratory Procedures
1. Junior Operative Techniques
i. Introduction to dental operatory
ii. Introduction to instrument used in cavity preparation
iii. Classification of dental caries
iv. Principles of Cavity preparation
v. Cavity preparation on plaster models/phantom head
vi. Filling Materials
1. Identification and study of handcutting instruments chisles, gingival margin trimmers, excavators and hatchet.
2. Identification and use of rotary cutting instruments in contra angle hand pieces burs (Micromotor)
3. Exercises on phantom head models which includes cavity preparation base and varnish application matrix and wedge placement followed by amalgam restoration
a. Class I (5)
b. Class I with extension (2)
c. Class II (10)
d. Class II Mods (2)
e. Class V and III for glass ionmers (4)
f. Class V for amalgam (2)
4. Polishing of above restorations.
5. Demonstration of Class III and Class V cavity preparation. For composites on extracted tooth completing the restoration.
6. Polishing and finishing of the restoration of composites.
7. Identification and manipulation of varnish bases like Zinc Phosphate, Poly carboxylate, Glass Ionomers, Zinc Oxide, Eugenol cements.
8. Identification and manipulation of various matrices tooth separators and materials like composites and modified glass ionomer cements.
2. Junior Prosthetics Techniques:
I. Introduction of impression and denture materials
II. Laboratory procedures
a) Complete Dentures
b) Arylic removeable partial denture
c) Cast partial denture
d) Anterior crowns
e) Posterior crowns
g) Relining / Rebasing procedures
i) Soldering and welding techniques.
3. Orthodontics Laboratory Procedures
i. Properties of wires used in Orthodontics
ii. Principles of wire bending including wire bending on wooden blocks
2.2- Second Professional B.D.S: