2.1- First Professional B.D.S:
2.1.1- Human Anatomy, Embryology, Histology and Neuroanatomy.
The students should gain the knowledge and insight into, the functional anatomy of the
normal human head and neck, functional histology and an appreciation of the genetic basis of inheritance and disease, and the embryological development of clinically important structures. So that relevant anatomical & scientific foundations are laid down for the clinical years of the BDS course.
A). KNOWLEDGE & UNDERSTANDING:
At the end of the 1st year BDS course in Anatomical Sciences the undergraduate student
is Expected to:
1. Know the normal disposition of the structures in the body while clinically examining a patient and while conducting clinical procedures.
2. Know the anatomical basis of disease and injury.
3. Know the microscopic structure of the various tissues, a pre-requisite for understanding of the disease processes.
4. Know the nervous system to locate the site of lesions according to the sensory and or motor deficits encountered.
5. Have an idea about the basis of abnormal development, critical stages of development, effects of teratogens, genetic mutations and environmental hazards.
6. Know the sectional anatomy of head neck and brain to read the features in radiographs and pictures taken by modern imaging techniques.
7. Know the anatomy of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation.
1. To locate various structures of the body and to mark the topography of the living anatomy.
2. To identify various tissues under microscope.
3. To identify the features in radiographs and modern imaging techniques.
4. To detect various congenital abnormalities.
126.96.36.199- AN OUTLINE OF THE COURSE CONTENT:
1. General anatomy: Introduction of anatomical terms and brief outline of various systems of the body.
2. Regional anatomy of head & neck with astrology of bones of head & neck, with emphasis on topics of dental importance.
3. General disposition of thoracic, abdominal & pelvic organs.
4. The regional anatomy of the sites of intramuscular & intra vascular injections, & lumbar puncture.
5. General embryology & systemic embryology with respect to development of head & neck.
6. Histology of basic tissues and of the organs of gastrointestinal, respiratory, Endocrine, excretory systems & gonads.
188.8.131.52- SEMESTER I:
GROSS ANATOMY I:::
1. Introduction to Gross anatomy:
a. Introduction to anatomy body planes & movements
b. Skeletal system-bones.
1. Axial Skeleton
2. Appendicular Skeleton
3. Functions of bone
4. Classification on the basis of shape, development, region and structure.
5. General concepts of development & ossification of bones
6. Parts of bones
7. Blood supply of long bones
8. Applied Anatomy of bones
1. Structural classification
2. Regional classification
3. Functional classification
4. Characteristics and classification of Synovial joints
5. Movements of Synovial joints
6. Anatomy of joints with reference to dislocation, sprain and inflammation
1. Parts of a muscle
3. Blood supply and nerve supply of muscle
4. Neuromuscular junction
5. Applied anatomy of muscle with reference to spasm, paralysis, atrophy and regeneration.
e. Cardiovascular system
1. Introduction to C.V.S
2. Types of circulation
f. Introduction to Lymphatic system
1. Lymph node
2. Lymph capillary
2. Gross Anatomy Head and Neck: Face and Scalp
a. A brief account of Scalp (blood supply & nerve supply.
b. Muscles of Facial expression
c. Blood supply and nerve Supply of face.
d. Description of Anatomical Regions of head (Temporal, Infratemporal, Pterygopalatine, Parotid)
e. Description of Muscles of Mastication
f. Tempomandibular joint
g. Oral Cavity
1. Introduction to nervous system
Description of Structure & function of neuron and neuroglial cells, Nerve fibers and peripheral nerves.
2. Central Nervous System
Description of central nervous system and meninges, spinal cord, medulla, pons, cerebellum, mid brain
1. Introduction to Body Tissues
A Brief description of Cell structure, Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Cartilage & Bone, Muscles & Circulatory system
2. Neural Tissue
Description of Neural Tissue (Neuron, Neuroglia, Ganglia), cerebella cortex, cerebral cortex.
3. Immune System
Description of Immune system and Lymph tissues (Tonsils, Thymus, Spleen).
1. Male & female reproductive systems.
2. Cell Division and Gametogensis
3. Fertilization, cleavage, blast cyst formation and implantation
4. Development during second week
5. Development during third week
6. Embryonic period
7. Fetal period
8. Fetal membrane (amniotic cavity, yolk sac, allantoids, umbilical cord and placenta)
9. Introduction to Genetics and Teratogenesis
Head and Neck Dissection: Introduction to Osteology of Skull and Vertebrae
Histology Methods of Study: Epithelial and Connective Tissue
Histological Methods of Study: Nervous and Lymphatic Tissue
Histological Methods of Study: Salivary Glands and Tongue
Histological Methods of Study: Endocrine Glands
184.108.40.206- SEMESTER II:
GROSS ANATOMY II:
1. Triangles of Neck
Description of Cervical fascia, Triangle’s & Their Divisions, Contents of Anterior Triangle, Contents of post Triangle. Sub-Mandibular region Great Vessels of the neck.
2. Deep structures of Neck
Description of Deep structures of Neck (Pharynx, Larynx, Thyroid glands, Cervical Plexus, Brachial Plexus, Trachea / Oesophagus, Pre-vertebral region.)
3. Orbital, cochlear and Nasal Cavity
Description of Ear, Eye and orbital cavity, Nasal cavity, Para-nasal air sinuses
4. Thorax and Abdomen
Brief description of Thorax (Lungs, Heart, and rib cage) brief description of Abdomen (Liver, Stomach, Intestine, Kidney, and Spleen).
1. Cerebral Cortex and Associated Structures
An account of Structure and organization of cerebral hemisphere, Motor areas, Ventricular system & C.S.F. formations.
2. Cranial Nerves
Description of Cranial nerve Nuclei, Olfactory and Optic nerve, Occulomoter/ Trochlear / Abducent, Trigiminal nerve, Facial Nerve, Vertibulocochlear Nerve, Glossopharyngeal Nerve, Vagus, Accessory and Hypoglossal nerve.
3. Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Thalamus and Hypothalamus, Autonomic nervous system, Blood Supply of Brain, Dural Venous Sinuses.
1. Glandular Epithelium and Endocrine Glands
Description of Glandular Epithelia (Extxinsic Digestive gland, Salivary Glands, Pancreas, Liver, Gall bladder), Description of Endocrine Glands (Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Adrenal gland, Pituitary Gland, Pineal Gland).
2. Oral Mucosa and Oral Cavity
Description of Oral mucosa and associated structures (Tongue, Teeth, Gums, Pharynx, Hard palate, Soft palate and lips.)
3. Esophagus, stomach
4. The respiratory system:
5. Nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx and trachea, Bronchi and lungs
1. Development of Head & Neck, Branchial Apparatus
a. Bronchial apparatus
e. Upper respiratory system
f. Development of face and palate and a brief overview of development of teeth.
2. The digestive system
3. The respiratory system
4. The cardiovascular system
5. The musclo-skeleton system
a. Development of skeleton
b. Development of muscles
6. Special Senses
7. Development of nervous system
Head and Neck Dissection: Face and Scalp
Head and Neck Dissection: Oral Cavity and Associated Structures
Head and Neck Dissection: Triangles and Deep structures of Neck
a) Intramuscular injections: Demonstration on a dissected specimen and on a living person of the following sites of injection.
Deltoid muscle and its relation to the axillary nerve and radial nerve.
Gluteal region and the relation of the sciatic nerve.
Vastus lateralis muscle.
b) Intravenous injections & venesection: Demonstration of veins in the dissected specimen and on a living person
1. Median cubital vein
2. Cephalic vein
3. Basilic vein
4. Long saphenous vein
c) Arterial pulsations: Demonstration of arteries on a dissected specimen and feeling of pulsation of the following arteries on a living person.
d) Lumbar puncture: Demonstration on a dissected specimen of the spinal cord, cauda equina & epidural space and the inter vertebral space between L4 & L5.
220.127.116.11- RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Latest editions of the books recommended should be consulted.
GRAY’S ANATOMY to be used as a reference book
Netters Atlas of Anatomy.
CLINICAL ANATOMY BY SNELL
CLINICALY ORIENTED ANATOMY BY K.L.MOORE
RJ LAST’S Anatomy – McMinn
1. JANCQUERA TEXTBOOK OF HISTOLOGY
2. COLOURD ATLAS OF HISTOLOGY BY DEFIERO
1. LANGMAN’S EMBRYOLOGY
2. CLINICALY ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT ANATOMY BY K.L.MOORE
The broad goal of teaching undergraduate students in Physiology aims at providing the student comprehensive knowledge of the normal functions of the organ systems of the body to facilitate an understanding of the physiological basis of health and disease.
A. KNOWLEDGE & UNDERSTANDING:
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Explain the normal functioning of all the organ systems and their interactions for well-coordinated total body function.
2. Assess the relative contribution of each organ system towards the maintenance of the ilieu interior.
3. List the physiological principles underlying the pathogenesis and treatment of disease.
At the end of the course, the student shall be able to:
1. Conduct experiments designed for the study of physiological phenomena
2. Interpret experimental and investigative data
3. Distinguish between normal and abnormal data derived as a result of tests which he /she has performed and observed in the laboratory.
18.104.22.168- SEMESTER I:
Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts
General Physiology / Cell
Functional organization of human body Abnormalities of the cell & its organelles
Control system in the body
Cell membrane and its functions
Transport through cell membrane
Composition and General Functions
Red Blood Cell (Erythropoisis) Anemia
Haemonglobin & Blood Blood indices in various disorders
Indices, Iron metabolism, Fate of Hb
White Blood Cells Leucopoiesis, Leucocytosis
Leucopoiesis, functions Platelets Thrombocytopaenia
Haemostasis Clotting disorders (Haemophilia etc)
Blood Groups Blood Grouping / Cross
Blood Transfusion & Complications Matching & Significance immunity
Reticuloendothelial systems, spleen
Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts
Nerve and muscle
The neuron-structure & functions
Properties of Nerve Fibers Nerve conduction studies
Physiology of action Potential EMG
Including compound action potentials
Conduction of Nerve impulse, Nerve Nerve Injury
Degeneration and regeneration
Structure of the muscle
Skeletal muscle contraction Rigor Mortis & Contractures
Isometric and isotonic contraction
Smooth muscle contraction
Neuromuscular transmission Myasthenia Gravis
Excitation-contraction coupling Motor Unit
Cardio Vascular system
Introducing to heart & circulation Correlation of cardiac cycle with ECG & heart sounds
Physiology of cardiac muscle
Action potential in atrial & ventricular
Muscle and pacemaker potential
Regulation of cardiac functions
Cardiac impulse-origin & propagation Significance of Apex beat/ abnormalities
Cardiac cycle-various events
ECG-Recording & interpretation ECG interpretation in cardiac muscle Abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias
Arrhythmias-mechanism of Development Flutter, Fibrillation-Ectopics
Functional types of blood vessels Haemodynamics of blood flow
Local control of blood flow Conduction defects
Characteristics and control
Regulation of peripheral resistance
Arterial pulse Jugular venous pulse
Arterial blood pressure (short/long Term regulation) Radial / other pulse
Cardiac output (Regulation / measurement) Heart sound/murmurs Hypertension, types & effects
Venous return & regulation Sounds Clinical evaluation of heart
Coronary circulation And murmurs Ischemic Heart disease Heart failure
Pulmonary circulation Echocardiogram
Cerebral circulation Types of shock
Cardiovascular changes during exercise
1. To study the different part of a microscope.
2. Methods of drawing blood for experimental purpose.
3. Study of Neubauer chamber
4. To determine the total erythrocyte counts in human blood.
5. To determine the total WBC count in human blood.
6 To study the differential leukocyte count.
7. To study the osmotic fragility of RBC’s.
8. Estimation of Hb in human blood by Sahli’s Heamoglobinometer.
9. To determine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
10. Determination of blood groups.
11. To determine the bleeding time.
12. To determine the clotting time.
13. To determine prothrombin time.
22.214.171.124- SEMESTER II:
Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts
Structure and General Functions
Enteric nervous system (Gut Brain)
Mastication, Swallowing and their control Dysphagia, achlasia of esophagus
Functions and movements of Stomach Examination of abdomen Peptic Ulcer, Pancreatitis
Small intestine Gastric function tests
Functions and movements of large Intestine
Hormones of GIT
Vomiting and its pathway Vomiting and its effects
Defecation and its pathway Diarrhoea, Constipation
Functions of Liver Jaundice, Liver function tests
Organization of Nervous System
Classification of nerve fibers
Properties of Synaptic transmission
Neuro transmitters and neuropetides
Types and function of sensory Receptors Receptors & Neurotransmitter (applied aspect)
Functions of spinal cord, ascending tracts
Reflex action / muscle tone Interpretation of Reflexes
Muscle spindle / muscle tone UMN / LMN Lesion – features and Localization
Tactile, temperature and pain Injuries and diseases of spinal
Sensations structure of cerebral Cortex Cord, Analgesia System
Sensory Cortex Disorders of cranial nerves
Motor pathways, pyramidal & extra Pyramidal) Hemiplegia / Paraplegia
Basal ganglia, connections and functions of Vestibular Apparatus / Regulation of Parkinsonism and other lesions Sleep Disorder
Posture & Equilibrium
Physiology of sleep / EEG
Physiology of memory Higher mental function
Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts
Organization / functions of Respiratory Tract.
Functions of Lungs (respiratory & non Respiratory) Types of respiratory (intrapleural, pressure, pneumothorax, effusion)
Mechanics of breathing Atelactasis
Lung volume and capacities Obstructive / restrictive lung Diaseases (FEV1 / FVC)
Diffusion of gases (gas law, composition)
Ventilation / Perfusion Abnormal
Ventilation / Perfusion
Transport of CO2 in blood
Regulation of respiration Respiratory
(Nervous / Chemical)
Abnormal breathing Asphyxia
Hypoxia—types and effects Hypoxia, Cyanosis, dyspnoea
Physiology of Cyanosis Artificial respiration
Physiology of high altitude, space deep Oxygen Therapy
Oxygen dept Caission’s disease
Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts
Physiology of speech Abnormalities of speech
Thalamus—Nuclei & Functions Hypothaiamus & limbic system. Thalamic syndrome Lesion of Hypothalamus
Cerebrospinal fluid Regulation of body temperature function of Skin. Hydrocephalus
Automatic nervous system
Physiology of aging
Physiology of taste Olfaction / taste obnormalistis
General principles (classification, Acromegaly, Giantism
Machanism of action, feed back control) Biosynthesis, transport, metabolism, action And control of secretion of hormones of; Hormonal Assay
Anterior Pituitary Dwarfism
Posterior Pituitary Panhypopituitarism
Thyroid gland Sheehan’s syndrome
Parathyroid, Calcitomin Diabetes insipidus
Adrenal Medulla Syndrome, of inappropriate ADH Secretion
Adrenal Cortex Myxeodema, Creatinism, Thyrotoxicosis
Pineal gland Cushing’s syndrome, Cohn’s
Thymus Adrenogenital Addision’s diseases, Syndrome
Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts
Kidney and Body Fluids Diabetes Milletus
Description of The body fluid compartments, Hypoglycemia
Glomerular filtration and its control, Tubular Zollinger Ellison Syndrome
processing and urine formation, Countercurrent Hypoglycemia
mechanism, Control of extracellular fluid osmolality,
Regulation of Acid-Base balance, Micturition and
Integument and Temperature Regulation
Skin and its functions, Body temperature regulation.
To study the effects of different regent on RBC’s.
To records the blood pressure in human blood.
To test the visual acuity.
To test the color vision.
To test sense of smell.
To test sense of Taste.
Hearing test for deafness.
Examination of superficial reflexes
Examination of deep reflexes
Examination of sensory, motor system
Clinical Examination of cranial nerves
Recording of normal cardiogram and affect of temperature
Effect of drugs on cardiac contractility
Effect of lons on cardiac contractility
Properties of cardiac muscle in frogs heart (Demonstration)
Heart Sounds – auscultation of normal sounds/murmurs
126.96.36.199- ANNEXURE FOR PHYSIOLOGY
1. Textbook of Medical physiology by Arthur C. Guyton.
2. Review of Medical physiology by Ganong.
3. N.M.S textbook of physiology.
4. Physiology by Sherwood.
BOOKS FOR REFERENCE:
i) Berne & Levey; Physiology, 2ND edition
ii) West-Best & Taylor’s, Physiological basis of Medical Practise, 11Th edition
Rannade; Practical Physiology,
Ghai; a text book of practical physiology
Hutchison’s; Clinical Methods
188.8.131.52- AIMS AND SCOPE OF THE COURSE IN BIOCHEMISTRY:
The major aim is to provide a sound but crisp knowledge on the biochemical basis of the life processes relevant to the human system and to dental/medical practice. The contents should be organised to build on the already existing information available to the students in the pre-university stage and reorienting. A mere rehash should be avoided.
The chemistry portion should strive towards providing information on the functional groups, hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties and weak valence forces that organize macromolecules. Details on structure need not be emphasized.
Discussion on metabolic processes should put emphasis on the overall change, interdependence and molecular turnover. While details of the steps may be given, the student should not be expected to memorise them. An introduction to biochemical genetics and molecular biology is a must but details should be avoided. The exposure to antivitamins, antimetabolitess and enzyme inhibitors at this stage, will provide a basis for the future study of medical subjects. An overview of metabolic regulation is to be taught by covering hormonal action, second messengers and regulation of enzyme activities. Medical aspects of biochemistry should avoid describing innumerable functional tests most of which are not in vogue. Cataloguing genetic disorders under each head of metabolism is unnecessary. A few examples, which correlate genotype change to functional changes, should be adequate.
At the end of the course the student would be able to acquire a useful core of information, which can be retained for a long time.
184.108.40.206- SEMESTER I:
Introduction of Biochemistry:
Biochemistry of the Cell
(a) Introduction to cell (Biochemical point of view)
(b) Scientific methods to study the cell Biochemistry
(c) Biochemical composition of the cell
Biochemistry of the Cell and Body Fluids:
(a) Ionization of water & weak acids, Bases
(b) Concept of pH, and pH scale
(c) Dissociation constant & titration curve of weak acids, the concept of pK values
(d) Buffers, their mechanism of action
(e) Henderson-Hesselbalch Equation
(f) Blood buffers
(g) Types of particles, solution, solute types, concentration units, biochemical behavior of water, viscosity
(h) Importance of selectively permeable membranes.
(i) Chemical bonds:
Covalent bonds, dative bonds, polar bonds, dipoles, chelates compounds, ionic bonds, hydrogen
bonds, vander waal’s forces of attraction.
Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, surface tension, viscosity & their importance related to body fluids
diffusion and filtration, phago and pinocytosis. Dialysis, Surface tension, Donnan’s equilibrium
(a) Definition, biochemical function and classification
(b) Structure and functions of Monosaccharides, and their derivatives
(c) Disaccharides, their important examples
(d) Oligosaccharides, their important combination with other macromolecules
(e) Polysaccharides, their important examples and biochemical role
(f) The biochemical importance of carbohydrates
(a) Definitions, Biomedical importance and classification of proteins
(b) Amino acids, their structure, properties and functions
(c) Classification and nutritional significance of amino acids and essential amino acids
(d) Dissociation, titration and importance of amino acid in pH maintenance
(e) Structure of proteins and their significance
(f) Separation of proteins e.g. salting out, Electroresis, Chromatography, Centrifugation
(g) Immunoglobulins and its biomedical significance
(h) Plasma proteins & their clinical significance
4. Nucleotide and Nucleic Acid:
(a) Chemistry and structure of nucleotides and their biochemical role
(b) Nucleotides, structure, their derivatives and their biochemical role
(c) Synthetic derivatives of purine and pyrimidines, their role in health and disease
(d) Nucleic acids, their types, structure and functions
(a) Definition, biomedical function
(b) Classification of lipids
(c) Phospholipids, Glycolipids, Sphingolipds and their Biochemical significance.
(d) Fatty acids, chemistry, classification and biochemical function
(e) Essential fatty acids
(f) Eicosanoids, their classification and functions in health and disease
(g) Steroids, Sterol e.g Cholesterol, their chemistry, functions and clinical Significance
(h) Lipid peroxidation and its Significance
6. Biological Membrane:
(a) Biochemical composition
(b) Biochemistry of cell membrane, chemical composition, importance of Lipid and proteins in
membranes, chemistry of signals and receptors
(c) Biochemistry of membrane transport mechanism, active transport, Passive transport, simple and
(a) Introduction, definition, mechanism of catalysis
(b) Coenzymes, co-factors
(c) Isoenzymes, their clinical importance
(d) Factors affecting enzymes activity, Michaelis-Menten Equation, Line weaver burk equation (plot)
and their application in enzyme kinetics.
(e) Enzyme inhibitors and their classification and biomedical importance
(f) Application of enzyme in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic use
(g) Characteristics energy of activation
1) Identification of Carbohydrate.
2) Identification of Polysaccharides.
3) Identification of Reducing and non-reducing sugars.
4) Detection of unknown carbohydrate I.
5) Detection of unknown carbohydrate II.
6) Detection of unknown carbohydrate III
7) Identification of protein (by precipitation reactions)
8) Identification of protein (by colour reactions).
9) Detection of Amino acid in proteins (I).
10) Detection of Amino acid in proteins (II).
11) Detection of Amino acid in proteins (III).
12) Detection of unknown proteins (I).
13) Detection of unknown proteins (II).
14) Detection of unknown proteins (III).
15) Identification of lipid.
16) Identification of Cholesterol.
220.127.116.11- SEMESTER II:
1. Biochemistry of Digestive Tract:
a) Introduction of digestion and absorption
b) Introduction, composition, functions, daily secretion, stimulants and depressants of:
– Gastric Juice & HCL
– Pancreatic Juice
– Bile Juice
– Succus Entericus
c) Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids.
d) Biochemical disorders of GIT, e.g. achlorhydria, peptic ulcers, Lactose intolerance, cholelithiasis and
a). Exergonic and endergonic reactions,
b). Coupled reactions, NAD+/NADH, FAD/FADH2, NADP/NADPH2, coenzyme A
c). Oxidative phosphorylation
d). Respiratory/ electron transport chain mechanism.
3. Carbohydrate Metabolism
e). Cori cycle.
f). T.C.A. cycle
4. Amino acid metabolism
b). Oxidative deamination
c). Ammonia toxicity
d). Urea cycle.
e). Glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids.
f). Some diseases of amino acid metablism (Phenyl ketonuria & Alkaptonuria)
5. Lipid metabolism
a). Beta-oxidation of lipids
b). Ketone bodies as fuels and in diabetes
c). Cholesterol metabolism
d). Role of lipoproteins
a). Nature and classification of hormones
b). Mechanism of action
c). Individual Hormones and their abnormalities.
7. Prophyrins & Hemoglobin:
(a) Chemistry and biosynthesis of prophyrins and its disorders (porphyrias)
(b) Structure, functions and types of hemoglobin
(c) Oxygen binding capacity of hemoglobin, factors affecting and regulating the oxygen binding capacity
(d) Degradation of heme, formation of Bile pigments, its types, transport and excetion
(e) Hyperbilirubinimea, their biochemical causes and differentiation, Jaundice and its types
(f) Heamoglobinopathies (HP-S, Thalasemia etc) and their biochemical causes
(a) Introduction, classification
(b) Chemistry, Biochemical Functions, Deficiency manifestations, daily allowances and sources of water
soluble and fat-soluble vitamins
9. Mineral & Trace Elements:
Classification and Biochemical role of:
a. Macro minerals (Na,K,Ca, CI, PO4)
b. Micro minerals (Fe,Zn,Mg,Se,I,Cu,Cr,Cd.Mn)
1) Milk Analysis I (for residue).
2) Milk Analysis II (for filtrate).
3) Simple Physical examination of urine.
4) Urine Analysis: normal constituents of urine.
5) Urine analysis: Abnormal constituents of urine
6) Estimation of glucose in Urine I.
7) Estimation of glucose in Urine II.
8) Estimation of glucose in Urine III.
1) Paper electrophoresis charts/clinical data evaluation
2) Glucose tolerance test profiles
3) Serum lipid profiles
4) Profiles of hypothyrodisim and hyperthyrodisim
5) Profiles of hyper and hypoparathyrodism
6) Profiles of liver function 0
7) Urea, uric acid creatinine profile in kidney disorders
8) Blood gas profile in acidosis/ alkalosi
18.104.22.168- RECOMMENDED TEXTBOOKS:
1. Harper’s Biochemistry, R.K. Murray et. al
2. Basic and Applied Dental Biochemistry, Williams and J.C. Elliot.
3. Textbook of Biochemistry Vol I & II by Mushtaq Ahmed
4. Lippincoat’s Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry
5. Textbook of Modern Biochemistry Vol I and II by Mukhtar Ahmed
6. Textbook of Biochemistry by Chatergee.
2.1.4- SCIENCE OF DENTAL MATERIALS
The science of Dental material has undergone tremendous changes over the years. Continued research has led to new material systems and changing concepts in the dental field. Interlinked with various specialized branches of chemistry, practically all engineering applied sciences and biological characteristics, the science of dental material emerged as a basic sciences in itself with its own values and principles.
Aim of the course is to present basic chemical and physical properties of dental materials as they are related to its manipulation to give a sound educational background so that the practice of dentistry emerged from art to empirical status of science, as more information through further research becomes available. It is also the aim of the course of dental materials to provide with certain criteria of selection and which will enable to discriminate between facts and propaganda with regards to claims of manufacturers.
To understand the evolution and development of science of dental material. To explain purpose of course in dental materials to personnel’s concerned with the profession of the dentistry. Knowledge of physical and chemical properties. Knowledge of biomechanical requirements of particular restorative procedure. An intelligent compromise of the conflicting as well as co-ordinating factors into the desired Ernest. Laying down standards or specifications of various materials to guide to manufacturers as well as to help professionals. Search for newer and better materials, which may answer our requirements with greater satisfaction. To understand and evaluate the claims made by manufactures of dental materials.
The dental materials is employed in mechanical procedures including restorative dentistry such as prosthodontics, endodontics, periodontal, orthodontics and restorative materials. There is scarcely a dental procedure that does not make use of dental materials in one form or another and therefore the application of dental material is not limited to anyone branch of dentistry. Branches such as minor surgery and periodontics require less use of materials but the physical and chemical characters of materials are important in these fields.
22.214.171.124- SEMESTER I
1) Introduction to the Science of Dentistry.
Structure of teeth & their arrangement according to their functions in oral cavity, oral disease, prevention and treatment.
2) Properties used to characterize materials.
Physical, chemical, thermal & biological properties.
3) Gypsum and its products as used in Dentistry, including Investment Plasters.
Composition, manufacturing process, classification, manipulation, setting characteristics, uses advantages & disadvantages.
4) Impression materials.
Classification chemical composition uses manipulation handling, clinical techniques, advantages and disadvantages.
Classification chemical composition, properties, handling characteristics, uses, advantages & disadvantages.
6) Metal & Alloys, including Base Metal Casting Alloys, Gold & Gold alloys, Wrought Alloys.
Physical structure, properties, biological considerations, classification, uses, advantages & disadvantages, cross comparison.
7) Dental prosthesis, partial and complete.
Classification of partial denture design, introduction to complete denture, components, surveyor & surveying procedure, clasp designs, cast clasp v/s wrought wire clasp, difference between cast partial / acrylic partial & fixed partial denture.
8) Polymers, including Denture Base Polymers, Denture Lining Materials, Temporary Crown & Bridge resins.
Chemistry of polymers, polymerization reaction, composition of denture base polymers / lining materials / crown & bridge resins, methods & stages of polymerization, uses, advantages & disadvantages.
1) Manipulation & slab exercise of soft hard plaster
2) Manipulation, Impression taking with alginate, elastomers impression composition, model base making exercise.
3) Handling of waxes, wax carving exercise.
4) Wire bending exercise, alphabet clasps designing.
5) Partial Dentures,
6) Surveyor, How to do surveying, Various types of clasp design according to gauges, wax up setup.
126.96.36.199- SEMESTER II:
1) Laboratory Procedure of making Dental Prosthesis.
Study of model / surveying, denture base & clasp designing, separating media, curing process, faults &
Composition, physical & Chemical properties, uses in dentistry, instruments & equipment, baking
process, advantages, comparison with acrylic resins.
3) Artificial Teeth.
Type, advantages & disadvantages, comparison with porcelain teeth.
4) Casting Procedure. Its application in Dentistry.
Equipment & instruments, detail knowledge of the process and materials used.
5) Dental Plaque and its related diseases of hard and soft tissues of the Oral Cavity.
Brief discussion of plaque and its related diseases, prevention, role of fluoride.
6) Classification of Cavity Design.
Classification of various cavity designs, brief discussion on cavity preparation in consideration of the
7) Restorative Materials, including Direct & Indirect Materials.
Amalgam, composite resin, glass ionmers, ceramic & metal inlays & veneers, full coverage metal and ceramic crwons.
8) Acid Etching and its applications in Restorative Dentistry.
Etching of enamel, dentine, glass inomer, porcelain, metal uses in preventive dentistry, such as, fissure sealents, process and materials used advantages and disadvantages.
9) Dental Cements.
Classification, chemical composition, manipulation, handling characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, specific usage, such as, sublining, lining, luting and restorative cements.
1) Demonstration of Casting and continue acrylic finishing & polishing.
2) Demonstration and use of ceramic. Fabrication of crowns and bridges.
3) Partial Denture Class I & II.
4) Partial Denture Class III & IV with modification of all three classes.
5) Demonstration of restoration Handling & manipulation exercise of Amalgam, Glass Ionomer & Dental Cements.
6) Demonstration of Acid Etching. Composite resin, handling & manipulation exercise.
188.8.131.52- Recommended Books
1. Restorative Dental Material by Robert G. Craig and John M. Power.
2. Phillips science of Dental Materials. By Kenneth J. Anusavice.
3. Chemistry of Dental Materials by Mc Cabe
4. Notes on Dental Materials by M. C. Comb
5. Dental Chemistry by William and Cunnigham
184.108.40.206- LIST OF DENTAL INSTRUMENTS
1. INSTRUMENTS QUANTITY SPECIFICATION
2. BOWLS 2 Rubber & Silicone
3. SPATULA 2 Plaster & Alginate
4. PLIERS 4 Lat, Round, Adams, Cutting
5. PLASTER KNIFE 1
6. WAX CARVER 1
7. WAX KNIFE 1
8. GLASS SLAB 1 4.5” X 5” X 0.4”
9. FLASKS 2
10. PRESS 1
11. TEETH STRIP 1 C/D: Shade H3, Size 3
12. PROTECTIVE EYE GLASSES 1
13. FACE MASKS 50
14. GLOVES 50 pairs
15. PENCIL 1
17. STEEL SCALE (6”) 1
18. SCOTCH TAPE 1
19. LOG BOOK 1
20. SCISSORS 1
2.1.5- PAKISTAN STUDIES:
a. The role of sufis and saints in the spread of Islam in the subcontinent.
b. Shah Waliullah and Tehrik – I – Mujahidin.
c. The war of Independenc 1857.
e. The Aligarh Movement.
e. The Aligarh Movement.
f. The Muslim League.
g. The Nehru report and Quaid-I-Azam 14 points.
h. The Ideology of Pakistan. The initial problems faced by newly independent Pakistan.
i. Pakistan and the Muslim World.
j. TheKashmir problem.
k. The U.N.O.
a. The fundamental pillars of Islam.
b. The Holy Qur’an: Sura-e-Furqan.
f. The Meccan period and life in Medina.
h. The Rashida Caliphate.
h. The Rashida Caliphate.
2.1- First Professional B.D.S: